2020 - 2016
Work Design SALSA
With the questionnaire "Salutogenetic Subjective Analysis of Work" (SALSA) by Rimann and Udris (1993; 1997), a proven instrument is already available for the valid and reliable recording of perceived work situations with different scales. Over the past years, more than 120 studies using the scales of the SALSA have been conducted in the Department of Industrial and Organizational Psychology at the European University of Flensburg. In total, data of more than 23.000 persons were generated, which are now being examined in meta-analyses.
Ziele der Untersuchungen sind u. a.:
- the development of benchmarks (e.g., industries, occupational fields, etc.),
- the investigation of correlations between perceived working conditions and job design scales (e.g., commitment, well-being, illnesses, etc.),
- the comparison of SALSA scales with comparable instruments for recording working conditions (e.g. the COPSOQ) as well as
- the further development or supplementation of the SALSA in terms of individual scales (e.g. leadership, workplace design, etc.)
Duration: 2019 - 2020
, in cooperation with
Microtasking and Motivation
Are the same work characteristics motivational and performance-enhancing for "the crowd" (online workers) as in traditional employment?
Duration: 2016 - 2019
in cooperation withProf. Dr. Jan Mendling (WU Vienna)
"Integration of preventive occupational health and safety in Industrie 4.0 education and training occupations (IntAGt)"
The IntAGt joint project investigates the extent to which the increasing digitalization of the work environment affects the health of employees.
One particular focus of the project is on the effects on mental health, which have been scarcely investigated to date. In the course of the project, concepts for preventive occupational health and safety in the context of Industry 4.0 will be developed.
The aim of the project is to develop and implement measures to promote healthy work that is conducive to learning under the conditions of Industry 4.0.
In addition to the European University of Flensburg, partners in the joint project include the University of Bremen, IG Metall, Elster GmbH and ArcelorMittal Bremen. The Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) is responsible for the project.
Duration: 07/2016 - 06/2019
Financing: Third-party funds
Project team members:, Celina Schmok, Malena Krüger
Work Tasks and Structures of Pedagogical Professionals in Day Care Centers for Children
The aim of this project is to investigate whether and how pedagogical staff in day care centers (Kitas) meet and apply the requirements formulated in the Schleswig-Holstein education program (as a social " mission ") in practice. With the help of a work analysis procedure to be developed, pedagogical specialists in day care centers are to be observed and questioned at work. The central goal of the project is to identify structural conditions (structural quality) that are conducive or obstructive to the implementation of the requirements. This fills a research gap, since - if at all - only self-assessments are available in the context of surveys, which are subject to strong social desirability, especially in this field.
Duration: 05/2015 - 04/2019
Financing: University funds
Project team members:
2016 - 2010
Family-friendly region of Rendsburg (FAME)
Short description: Investigation of the reconcilableness of family/care and work; identification of areas of activity for a family-friendly region
Funding: Stadt Rendsburg
Duration: 06/2012 - 11/2013
Employees: Dirk Wortmann, Deborah Hohmeyer, Lars Hochmann, Wilhelm Karwatzki, Hanna Nautsch und Susanne Vogel
Publications by the Federal Ministry of Family Affairs as well as the charter for family-friendly working hours signed in February prove the importance currently attributed to the issue of "reconciliation" from the political side. The work situation has primarily been addressed up to now, whereas conditions and difficulties of the everyday life are being neglected.
If employed people assume social responsibility, such as e.g. child care and education or care of sick relatives, they face a variety of problems. Reconciling work and family or work and care is no easy task. There are repeatedly time and demand-related role conflicts  in the course of the day and have to be solved on a daily basis. In the field of family-friendly or family-oriented human resources policy , work-related measures are dominant. In contrast, any suggestions going beyond business and facilitating the duties of the daily life are underrepresented.
In the meantime, there are various initiatives that supplement the operational approach by regional activities, such as e.g. the action platform firstname.lastname@example.org. The idea of a family-oriented region has already been taken up by the Institute of Working Life and Family of the Hertie Foundation and a certificate of a family-friendly region has been awarded.
Leading question of the project
Which difficulties of everyday life occur for the persons affected and how burdensome are they?
Objective of the project
In the FAME project, the regional approach for the region of Rendsburg should be developed in order to improve the reconcilableness of work and family in the region of Rendsburg. For this purpose, any difficulties and everyday problems of the reconciliation of work and family are to be determined in the region of Rendsburg. Against this backdrop, suggestions for any regional measures are determined and elaborated in cooperation with regional agents. Thus, family-oriented corporate management is supplemented by the actions affecting the way of living (such as e.g. the synchronization of working times and lifetimes or any other family-supporting measures).
The project consists of three phases: In the first two phases, it is determined by way of interviews and a postal survey in which situations and circumstances in life families are facing difficulties of reconciling work and the assumption of social responsibility in terms of care.
For preparing the survey qualitative interviews are conducted in selected household and family types at first.
The third phase includes the feedback of the results on the occasion of a workshop series. As part of this workshop series, a list of measures with regard to the problem and activity fields determined in the study should be developed. Individual projects are supervised and evaluated within a cooperation with Europa-Universität Flensburg.
The final report is available for download.
The result of the study shows a significant need for action in the subject areas investigated. Accordingly, some approaches for the development of countermeasures have been indicated.
vgl. Greenhaus, J. H. & Beutell, N. J. (1985). Sources of conflict between work and family roles. Academy of Management Review, 10, 76-88.
. vgl. Dilger, A., Gerlach, I. & Schneider, H. H. (2007). Betriebliche Familienpolitik - Potenziale und Instrumente aus multidisziplinärer Sicht. Wiesbaden: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften.
An empirical study of mutual dependency in consideration of leadership behavior.
Conducted for the purposes of the Master thesis by Laura Ditzel and Dirk Wortmann. For describing an employee´s attachment with her or his company the term of identification or commitment can be used. Both terms describe the emotional connection or the psychological bond between employees and their company. Whereas identification mainly manifests on the values and standards of employees and organizations, factors, such as the variety of work, a good work climate, etc. have an effect on the commitment.
In this connection, it is a proven fact that a large commitment of employees in the form of motivated and reliable acting positively contributes to the performance of an organization. However, how to create and raise commitment? Among others, the industrial-organizational psychology devotes itself to working conditions and their consequences for the psychic and physical health of employees.
Against this backdrop, it should be explored as part of a Master thesis and by way of an empirical survey
whether there is a connection between working conditions and commitment
and whether any specific partial areas of working conditions have a stronger impact on commitment than others.
External long-term analysis (ELZA)
Short description Evaluation von Mutter-Kind-Kuren
Duration: 04/2011 - 04/2012
Contact person: :
Employees: Patricia Ohst, Sara Wichmann,
In the ELZA project (external long-term analysis) the effects of mother-child-cures of the Ev. Health Resort GODE TIED (Büsum) has been investigated under the direction of Prof. Dr. Marianne Resch.
The ELZA project was developed from a cooperation between the Ev. Health Resort GODE TIED and Europa-Universität Flensburg. It was carried out as a study project with students in the subject group of industrial-organizational psychology of Europa-Universität Flensburg.
Have the cures a short-term effect on the health and well-being of the participants?
Have the cures a medium-term effect on the health and well-being?
Are any changes in behavior initiated by the cures?
The focus of the evaluation was on the women´s state of exhaustion, and in particular, the emotional exhaustion that is deemed to be a dimension of the burnout syndrome.
In two guest groups of the health resort, surveys were conducted prior to the beginning of the treatment and directly at the end of the cure. A third survey was made by post three weeks after the end of the treatment.
The investigation was carried out with two different guest groups of the health resort in order to verify the replicability of the results.
For measuring the emotional exhaustion the BHD system (system of stress screening in human services)was used. As another health indicator, any psychosomatic complaints were collected with the help of Freiburg Complaint List (FBL) . Freiburg Complaint List surveys the number and frequency of any psychosomatic complaints.
For measuring the changes in behavior a new questionnaire had to be developed. The participants were requested to indicate for various routines or behavior patterns whether they were following them less frequently, equally often or more often after the cure.
The response rates with regard to the three times of measurement were between 60% and 90% in both guest groups of the health resort and can be deemed as satisfactory.
The values for the emotional exhaustion were significantly lower at the end of the treatment than at the beginning. This effect appeared in both groups and is statistically significant. At the same time, it is sustainable: three weeks after the treatment, the values for the emotional exhaustion are still lower; a further decrease can even be recorded.
The investigation with regard to the psychosomatic complaints reveals a similar pattern. It was also here where the number and frequency of the complaints measured at the beginning of the treatment decreased. The decline in psychosomatic complaints was consistent and can also be proven three weeks after the end of the treatment.
The investigation with regard to the behavior showed significant changes for the majority of the routines tested.
Thus, the results of the study allow the following statements:
The cures offered by the Ev. Health Resort GODE TIED achieve a short-term improvement of the participants´ health, and in particular, of the exhaustion values and the psychosomatic complaints. Moreover, in the course of the treatment, changes in behavior are suggested which are even implemented after return from the stay at the health resort.
For analyzing long-term effects another investigation was carried out, examining the states of exhaustion and psychosomatic complaints six months after the end of the stay at the health resort. For this purpose, even interdependencies between changes in behavior and health values were verified.
The questions of the final survey were as follows:
- Have the cures a long-term effect on the health and well-being?
- Do the cures achieve any long-term changes in behavior?
- Is there a connection between health/well-being and the behavior at home?
Arbeitsleben. 4. Auflage. Asanger R. Verlag.vgl. Richter, P. & Hacker, W. (2014). Belastung und Beanspruchung. Stress, Ermüdung und Burnout im
vgl. Hacker, W. & Reinhold, S. (1999). Beanspruchungserfassung bei Humandienstleistungen.
vgl. Fahrenberg, J. (1994). Die Freiburger Beschwerdeliste.
Design of age-appropriate working conditions in Hospitals and Nursing Homes (GAbi)
Funding: Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin (BauA), Bundesministerium für Arbeit und Soziales (BMAS)
Duration: 10/2006 bis 05/2010
Members: Alexandra Diendorf, Benjamin Haase, Andrea Kampen, Lea Maikämper, Ines Pfefferkorn, Thomas Stepan, Tobias Thier
The final report is available for download.
In the course of demographic development, the change in the performance of older employees has increasingly come into focus. In this context, the question of "age-appropriate working conditions" is often discussed.
Demographic change is particularly problematic in working environments such as hospitals and retirement homes, where not only the employees themselves but also the people providing care are getting older.
In cooperation with the Ev.-Luth. Diakonissenanstalt zu Flensburg (Diako), the project will proceed in three steps. In the first step, a detailed inventory of the existing working conditions in the Diako will take place.
In the second step, workshops will be held in which employees will be empowered to create age-appropriate working conditions and thus be involved in shaping their own working conditions in the long term. This is followed by the accompanying specification and implementation of the measures developed within this framework.
One objective of the Gabi project is to improve the working conditions of older employees (55+) at the Diako with the help of the concept of Qualifying Work Design. In addition, the project results are to be prepared in the form of a practical guide and an e-learning tool as concrete instructions for use in other hospitals and retirement homes.
In short, the aim is to demonstrate practicable and effective ways of promoting and maintaining the health and employability of older (55+) working people.
This project investigates the question of which objectively measurable conditions promote patient satisfaction in hospitals. By means of an online-based trend survey, which was preceded by a pretest, a new instrument is being developed and tested that is intended to help hospitals with patient care and support in the future. Initial results indicate that patient satisfaction is largely driven by the dimensions of communication, participation and appreciation.
Currently, final control surveys are being conducted using paper and pencil to rule out any possible bias due to the original survey method. The survey is expected to be completed in July 2016.
Duration: 08/2014 - 12/2016
Financing: Third-party funds
This dissertation project investigates whether and to what extent people who are sent abroad for a certain period of time, so-called expatriates, change in selected personality traits over time. The potential personality development of expatriates may be influenced by the differences between the home culture and the respective culture in the sending country.
The aim of this project is to explore whether people change in their personality traits while abroad and whether this development is under the influence of cultural divergence between home and host country. The panel study pursues the highlighting of further determinants of the reintegration process after the stay abroad. These go beyond the mechanisms of impact identified so far in research, which are mostly focused on the external structural.
Financing: University funds
2009 - 2005
Evaluation of the campaign "BUS-Engel - Gewaltprävention in Südholstein" in the districts of Pinneberg and Segeberg (EBEK)
Brief description: Evaluation of the campaign "BUS-Engel - Gewaltprävention in Südholstein" in the district Pinneberg and Segeberg
Funding: Südholstein Verkehrsgesellschaft mbH
Duration: 07/2008 - 03/2009
Project team members: Dana Niemann
BUS-Engel is a holistic concept for preventing violence and increasing road safety for schoolchildren in the Pinneberg district that has been in existence since 2003. Since 2008, the concept has been implemented jointly in the districts of Pinneberg and Segeberg under the management of Südholstein Verkehrsgesellschaft GmbH. Following an expansion of the objectives, the campaign now aims to promote the acquisition of civil courage, social competence and self-confidence in social contact in everyday situations as primary goals and the reduction of vandalism on buses and in public life as a secondary goal. The study followed up on the 2005 evaluation (EFA). The need for a renewed evaluation resulted from the changed objectives, fixed establishment and steady development of the BUS-Engel concept.
Objective of the Project
The evaluation study aimed to prove the effectiveness of the training and the adequate implementation of the objective. For this purpose, a cross-sectional study was conducted to compare BUS-Engel and accompanying students, as well as a before-and-after study of students taking part in the training. For this purpose, the previously developed student questionnaire from the first evaluation study (EFA) was used. In accordance with the modified objectives of the BUS-Engel campaign, the measurement instrument was slightly modified and additionally supplemented by three scales of the Frankfurt Self-Concept Scales (FSKN).
To subjectively assess the impact and benefits of the concept, brief interviews based on a guideline were conducted with parents of BUS-Engel students who had recently completed the training, as well as with teachers. These brief interviews also served to identify optimization needs.
Brief interviews and questionnaire survey
The results were reported back to the clients by means of a presentation and documented in a project report. The feedback of the results to the schools was carried out independently by the commissioners. A publication in the journal "Der Nahverkehr" is planned.
Brief description: Family friendliness in companies in Dithmarschen and North Frisia
Funding: European Regional Development Fund (ERDF)
Duration: 06/2004 - 05/2007
Project team members: Claudia Fenzl, Rūta Lange, Uta Bindl, Anika Schulz
Resch, M. (2003). Work-Life Balance - neue Wege der Vereinbarkeit von Berufs- und Privatleben? In H. Luczak (Hrsg.), Kooperation und Arbeit in vernetzten Welten (S. 125-132). Stuttgart: ergonomia Verlag.
Press: Pressespiegel 2004, Pressespiegel 2005, Pressespiegel 2006, Pressespiegel 2007
"Work life balance", "family friendliness" or "family-oriented human resources management" are modern buzzwords in the discussion about the compatibility of professional and private spheres of life. It is assumed that companies will (have to) increasingly address this issue in the future. The background to this is, among other things, demographic developments and changes in lifestyles, but also the realization that measures that take into account the needs and life situations of employees contribute to motivation, loyalty to the company and psychosocial well-being. This development is reflected, for example, in competitions on the "family-friendliness of companies" or in the "Work & Family" audit certificate of the non-profit Hertie Foundation. However, the prevalence of the discussion does not allow any conclusions to be drawn about the concrete implementation status in the companies. Small and medium-sized companies in particular often neither have the corresponding human resources nor do they e.g. have reason to inform themselves about such certifications. On the contrary, it is precisely in smaller companies that the willingness and flexibility to find unconventional solutions to compatibility problems of individual employees can be found.
Objective of the Project
As part of a project funded by the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF), a survey is being conducted on the state of family-friendly measures in small and medium-sized enterprises in the Nordfriesland and Dithmarschen region. At the same time, case studies are to be conducted in selected companies. The methodological inventory includes expert interviews, questionnaires and - after consultation with the companies - company inspections and work analyses.
The results of the surveys carried out in the individual companies were fed back in workshops. The aim was to jointly develop starting points for the (further) development of measures to improve compatibility. A guideline was developed that can be used by other companies to develop comparable measures.
Scientific monitoring of the SAT working time project (SATellit)
Brief description: Scientific monitoring of the SAT working time project
Funding: By the commissioning company and the Hans Böckler Foundation
Duration: 01/2005 - 04/2006
Project team members: Wiebke Wrage, Alexandra Diendorf
Ulich, E. (2001). Beschäftigungswirksame Arbeitszeitmodelle. vdf: Zürich.
Resch, M., Wrage, W. & Diendorf, A. (2006). Wissenschaftliche Begleitung des Projektes "SAT: Selbstverantwortete Arbeitszeitplanung im Team". Abschlussbericht. Flensburg.
In the SATellit project, the conditions and effects of collective working time planning were to be investigated within the frame of an annual working time model. The area of investigation is in the health care sector. It thereby concerns one of the largest employers in Schleswig-Holstein with several clinics and facilities in the areas of acute medicine, rehabilitation and tourism employing a total of more than 4,000 people. As an alternative to extending weekly working hours, the parties to the collective agreement agreed on a temporary pilot project "SAT: Self-responsible work time planning in teams". The SAT teams were to be able to determine the working hours of their members independently. The planning also included considerations on the organization of work in the groups. The collective bargaining parties expected this arrangement to lead to more efficient scheduling - above all, to a needs-based regulation of seasonal fluctuations - as well as to an improvement in the well-being or satisfaction of the employees.
Objective of the Project
In the SATellit project, the effects of collective work time planning were to be examined within the context of a before-and-after design with comparative groups. It was investigated whether self-managed working time planning has positive effects on the subjective evaluation of the work situation. It was also expected that there would be improvements - albeit to a lesser extent - in terms of stress indicators and the compatibility of work and other areas of life. Changes in the area of working overtime and in the identification and elimination of organizational deficiencies were also to be surveyed. Planning materials and basic information on working hours and stress factors were to be developed as part of the process supervision. Guidance was also to be provided on the group decisions to be taken. At the beginning, the introduction process was to be facilitated by an external moderator.
The experience gained - particularly with regard to the collective negotiation of individual time requirements - was to be used to draw up a guideline (and, if necessary, training for moderators) in order to be able to set up further groups with self-managed working time planning in the future, even without external support.
The research design envisioned three points in time for the written survey. The data of the SAT groups were to be compared in each case with those of comparable departments without intervention.
After the third survey, the data of the SAT groups and comparison groups were examined over time. In contrast to the comparative groups, the SAT groups showed an improvement in the assessment of working time conditions and improvements in the stress indicators over the course of the project. Furthermore, recommendations to the company for a possible continuation of the project could be derived from the results.
Schleswig Work Analyses (SArA)
Brief description: Schleswig Work Analyses
Funding: Specialist Clinic Schleswig
Duration: 08/2005 - 11/2005
Project team members: Dr. Martin Resch, Anika Schulz
Quality management is becoming increasingly important in the healthcare sector - especially in light of major changes in this sector. Consequently, the Schleswig hospital also sought certification of its internal quality management. In this context, the project ?SArA? work analyses were carried out to obtain detailed task descriptions at selected workplaces in the Clinic for Psychotherapeutic Medicine.
Objectives of the Project
Detailed task descriptions for selected workplaces in the clinic were obtained through work analyses based on detailed observation of the work activity at a specific workplace and interviews with the working person linked to this. These are characterized by their activity and subject orientation, i.e. they represent the actual work process in the form of action-oriented tasks at a specific workplace. In doing so, they refer to the concrete conditions on site and the division of labor practiced there. In addition, they provide information on responsibilities, interfaces and workloads.
Job activity observations at selected workplaces in the clinic.
The task descriptions, which are based on work psychology, were initially fed back to the employees before they were further used within the context of quality management in order to provide indications of work organization weaknesses, among other things.
Analyzing hazards at the Holländerhof (GeHa)
Brief description: Analyzing hazards at the Holländerhof
Funding: Residential and workshop for disabled people in Schleswig-Holstein
Duration: 02/2005 - 08/2005
Project team members: Heinz-Werner Bertelmann, Alexandra Diendorf, Simon Fietze, Michael Lambert Hacker, Ruta Lange, Anika Schulz, Dr. Martin Resch
Resch, M. (2003). Analyse psychischer Belastungen. Verfahren und ihre Anwendungen im Arbeits- und Gesundheitsschutz. Bern: Huber.
Within the framework of the project, hazard analyses were carried out to examine mental stress at work. This took account of the statutory provision of the Occupational Health and Safety Act. At the same time, the feedback from the analysis results was used to qualify employees through and for a participation-oriented improvement of working conditions. Experience from the projects on qualifying work design was used here.
Objective of the Project
Various methods were used to record the current status. In addition to a written survey of all employees, stresses and resources were examined and evaluated at selected workplaces with the aid of psychological work analysis procedures. Questionnaires generally only allow a rough estimate of the stress factors - in particular, data from questionnaires hardly provides any information on the measures required to reduce stress. It is therefore recommended to combine questionnaires with work analysis procedures. Such procedures are based on a detailed observation of the work activity and a subsequent interview of the working person. The use and communication of work analysis methods or the underlying concepts form the core of "qualifying work design".
Hazard analyses, employee surveys, work analyses
The results of the detailed stocktaking were fed back in information events and workshops. The aim was to enable employees to recognize disabilities and disturbances in the workplace themselves and to develop proposals for improving work processes that combine the goal of freedom from stress with the concern for work that promotes personality and health. This fulfilled essential requirements of the Occupational Health and Safety Act with regard to hazard analysis. At the same time, this approach also integrated aspects of personnel development.
2004 and earlier
Analysis of working conditions, demands and resources of teachers (Anabel)
Brief description: Analysis of working conditions, demands and resources of teachers
Funding: School in Schleswig-Holstein
Duration: 01/2004 - 11/2004
Project team members: Simon Fietze, Claudia Fenzel
Resch, M. & Fietze, S. (2004). Anabel - Analyse der Arbeitsbedingungen, Belastungen und Ressourcen der Lehrkräfte. Flensburg: Universität.
Both the sick leave rate and the number of early retirements indicate that teachers can be classified as a highly stressed occupational group. A reduction of possible sources of stress therefore appears to be urgently required. The offer of personal measures to reduce stress or change behavior (relaxation training, discussion groups, etc.) should be supplemented by a preventive design of the working conditions at the school workplace in order to avoid the development of the mentioned complaints and illnesses in advance.
Objective of the Project
The Anabel project involved the systematic recording of working conditions, stresses and resources of teachers with the aim of deriving empirically justifiable measures. Interviews, questionnaires and work analysis techniques for work inside and outside the classroom were used.
Semi-structured interviews & written survey of teachers, work analyses
The results of the detailed stocktaking were fed back in workshops. The suggestions for improving work processes and collaboration that emerged from the analyses and the workshops concerned both the organization of work (interventions related to circumstances and conditions) and qualification offerings (interventions related to behaviour and people).
Development of a multimedia learning system (LARA)
LARA (subproject) → Integral II (general project)
Brief description: Development of a multimedia learning system
Funding: Funding within the frame of the Future Investment Program of the Federal Government by the Project Management Agency of the BMBF "Neue Medien in der Bildung" (funding code 08 NM 133A)
Duration: 06/2001 - 12/2003
Project team members: Claudia Fenzl
Resch, M. & Fenzl, C. (2005). Psychologische Arbeitsanalyse. In H. Luczak & L. Schmidt, E-Learning-Kooperation in der Arbeitswissenschaft (S. 123-132). Stuttgart: ergonomia Verlag.
Teaching the competence of using work analysis methods is difficult within the framework of normal teaching sessions. In the course of developing an Internet-supported multimedia teaching system INTEGRAL, a special learning module was therefore also developed for teaching knowledge and skills for the use of psychological work analysis procedures.
Objective of the Project
Within the scope of a multimedia learning system for teaching the basics and methods of work science, the Chair of Industrial and Organizational Psychology was responsible for creating the module "Psychological Work Analysis Methods".
This module introduces the concept and methodological standards of work analysis, clarifies the reason for and goal of psychological work analyses, and provides an overview of existing procedures. The emphasis is on the application-related teaching of the RHIA/VERA procedure for the analysis of psychological stresses and demands.
Learning module for imparting knowledge and competencies for the use of psychological work analysis procedures.
Groupwork in the cleaning of streets and sidewalks
Funding: project in cooperation with a company (financed by a municipal waste management company)
Duration: 08/1995 - 07/2001
Project team members: Andreas Krause
Dunckel, H. & Landerer, C. (1994). Innovation und Beteiligung. In R. Busch (Hrsg.), Konfrontation-Kooperation-Innovation. Betriebliche Modernisierungsstrategien und Interessenvertretung, 10 (S. 67-78). Berlin: Zentrale Universitätsdruckerei.
Krause, A. & Dunckel, H. (2003). Arbeitsgestaltung und Kundenzufriedenheit - Auswirkungen der Einführung teilautonomer Gruppenarbeit auf die Kundenzufriedenheit unter Berücksichtigung von Mitarbeiterzufriedenheit und Arbeitsleistung. Zeitschrift für Arbeits- und Organisationspsychologie, 47, 182-193.
In the context of a large utility company, the process of introducing (semi-autonomous) group work was accompanied and evaluated in terms of occupational psychology and ergonomics. The main tasks were: Creation of a concept, analysis of the present situation including task analyses, group-oriented reorganization of the departments, qualification of the employees and the managers, adaptation and optimization of the technology, evaluation of the project stages and results. Group work was introduced on a large scale at 167 groups.